- The child's vocabulary.
- The child's lack of experience, and his or her personal explanations for things he or she doesn't totally understand.
- The child's motivations and desires.
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Children have different desires and fears than adults do, and sometimes they are irrational. That fact allows you to create scenes and conflicts that are, at heart, irrational but to the reader seem perfectly plausible.
Children can find fear in joyous events, or rationalize and marginalize horrific events, giving you, the writer, opportunities to tell a story in a backward sort of way.
For a great example of horrific events seen through a child's rationalization, read Emma Donoghue's Room. It's simultaneously heart-breaking and uplifting.